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"But we all know that permanent judges acquire an Esprit de corps; that being known, they are liable to be tempted by bribery; that they are misled by favor, by relationship, by a spirit of party, by a devotion to the executive or legislative power... It is in the power, therefore of the juries... to judge the law as well as the fact."

— Thomas Jefferson, 1789


".....it is usual for the jurors to decide the fact, and to refer the law arising on it to the decision of the judges. But this division of the subject lies with their discretion only. And if the question relate to any point of public liberty, or if it be one of those in which the judges may be suspected of bias, the jury undertake to decide both law and fact."

— Thomas Jefferson,
"Notes on Virginia," 1782


"The jury has the power to bring a verdict in the teeth of both the law and the facts."

— Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes,
Horning v. District of Columbia, 1920


"Jurors should acquit, even against the judge's instruction...if exercising their judgement with discretion and honesty they have a clear conviction that the charge of the court is wrong."

— Alexander Hamilton, 1804

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